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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Yan Pu, head of portfolio review in Asia at Vanguard, suspects the Asian product mix may be holding things back. For example, Asian providers offer plenty of equity ETFs but very few fixed income products. In the US, she notes, fixed income ETFs are growing rapidly.

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"Some geniuses in the internet industry created miracles, but that does not tell the whole story," said Chen. "Business has its own rules. Before you start up, you have to know how to produce products, how to sell them, how to manage a company. Those lessons you cannot expect a fresh graduate to know."
恭贺新禧,万事如意。
周二,她在给客户的一封信里提出了下面几个观点,令我耳目一新:

如果在“消极情感”和“社交抑制”两个维度得分均为10分或10分以上,那么你就是一个有D型人格特征的人。
8. Am I playing too hard? A lack of motivation to accomplish certain things can throw you off balance or make you feel stressed out and pressured later on. Taking breaks is very necessary, but if you take so many breaks that your productivity level drops, or you get into the habit of procrastinating too much, it might be time to balance out your schedule so that you will get a generous amount of things done and still have time for breaks and leisure.
Frances McDormand giving an outstanding central performance as a grieving mother in this darkly comic story.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

2017“房住不炒”深入人心 楼市供求格局发生可喜变化

根据《重庆晨报》报道,今年4月24日,这名16岁的周姓同学将农药倒入了教室的饮水机中,显然是在报复扰乱课堂秩序、影响自己学习的同学们。
1.世界杯赛期间的一整个月电视遥控器都由我控制。
Tiemba项目在国际化体验方面得分很高,它的一半课程在北京的清华大学校园内完成,另一半在欧洲工商管理学院位于新加坡、法国和阿拉伯联合酋长国(UAE)的三个校区进行。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

恭祝健康、幸运,新年快乐。
adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的
娱乐时尚:性感林赛罗韩大"血拼"

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • 集成家居顶PK石膏吊顶 谁更环保更健康?
  • 人类在过去50年的平均寿命比人类存在的20万年中的平均寿命要长的多。目前,人类的平均寿命是70岁,1950年的平均寿命是47岁,两者存在很大的差异。
  • 中国社科院学部委员李扬: 推进金融供给侧改革六大方向
  • 合肥地铁施工渣土泥浆化身新型建材
  • 1.Rain Man
    我国发展到现在这个阶段,不靠改革创新没有出路。我们拥有世界上数量最多、素质较高的劳动力,有最大规模的科技和专业技能人才队伍,蕴藏着巨大的创新潜能。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 包头家具建材类投诉升温凸显预付式消费风险, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

浴室柜行业生存压力大 四大出路解决问题

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

罗莱生活定增12.5亿 打造线下全渠道O2O运营体系

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • While Switzerland’s University of St Gallen retains the top spot, French and British business schools, with 24 and 18 programmes respectively, are the backbone of the 2017 FT ranking of 95 programmes around the world. More than half of UK schools move up the ranking, compared with one in France. A third of British schools rise five places, in contrast to the two-thirds of French schools that drop five or more places.
    贝南克(Bernanke)说今年晚些时候的经济将会走强,所以到时候他可以松开油门,也就是“在今年晚些时候开始减弱刺激性的量化宽松(QE)计划”。对此麦嘉华(Marc Faber)笑了。没错,他笑了。
  • This is not to take anything away from Tesla, which has demonstrated that it can create and manufacture a complex and sophisticated product with demonstrated customer appeal. But its own internal forecasts, as well as the swelling of its share price, are based on the expectation that the future will unspool in an orderly fashion identical to the recent past. That’s a dangerous assumption to make – for several reasons:
    The U.S. has fallen to become Germany's third largest trading partner in 2016.
    Rounding out the top three is Fleetwood Mac at $59.5 million. Though the band contains three men, it also boasts two high-profile ladies—Stevie Nicks and the recently-returned Christine McVie—rendering the group eligible for this list. Its On With The Show tour included 86 concerts during our scoring period, grossing well over $1 million per city.
    affection
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Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家居市场冷清 营销手段无新意顾客不买账
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 国家税务总局:新个税改革中将与多部门实现第三方信息共享

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Japan, ranked No. 5 overall, is the top performing Asian country. It ranks No. 5 in Movers and No. 1 as the most forward-looking country.
"史上最短的明星婚姻"大盘点
The U.S. is set to add nearly 3 million jobs in 2014 — the biggest increase since 1999. The burst in job creation, expected to continue in 2015, is sure to fuel consumer spending. So, too, will a plunge in gasoline prices that's given households extra cash to spare on other goods and services. See: Americans saved $14 billion as gasoline prices declined in 2014.
眼看11月就要过去了,正如我周一写的那样,往年经验表明,9支球队很有可能已经被踢出季后赛地竞争行列了。然而,他们中没有一支球队表明要摆烂。
vt. 建议,推荐,劝告
opposed
When M·A·S·H first aired, the characters of Hawkeye and Trapper were meant to be equally sized roles. It was with that understanding that Wayne Rogers agreed to take the role of Trapper John. However, as Alan Alda began to make changes to the characters and have more influence on the direction of the show, Hawkeye began to seriously eclipse Trapper.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Twenty years of global negotiations aimed at slowing the growth of heat-trapping emissions have yielded little progress. However, 2014 saw signs of large-scale political mobilization on the issue, as more than 300,000 people marched in New York City in September, and tens of thousands more took to the streets in other cities around the world.
  • 财政部:前7月国有土地使用权出让收入31548亿元 同比增35.1%
  • Last year, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine conducted random quality inspections on 1,013 batches of such products, including consumer goods such as toys, paper diapers, clothing and kitchenware, with 415 found to be substandard, accounting for 40.9 percent of all sampled products, according to Han Yunping, spokesman for the administration.
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  • 落户新政来了!城门已经打开,城门有待大开
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 对欧洲的新投资比2014年的180亿美元高出28%,相比之下,2014年投资额较2013年翻了一倍。对美国的投资比2014年的128亿美元高出17%。
    [kri'eitiv]
  • A historically jittery commodity, crude oil has seen calm prices for three years, and one big factor has been helping smooth the wrinkles: U.S. shale oil.
    1. Bubble With No Name Yet triggers the biggest crash in 30 years
  • Indeed. That's an understated benefit of Philly tanking so hard in recent years: they are so bad it disincentives other clubs from tanking because they'll struggle to be as bad as the Sixers. The Mavericks are in the mix, at least.
    Season\'s greetings and best wishes for the New Year.
  • This is the 16th edition of the FT global executive MBA ranking.
    9.《老友记》中卡罗尔和苏珊的婚礼
    宠物保护伞
  • 你本应该享受生活,不该时时刻刻感到压力。如果你的大部分时间都在为工作的是感到压力很大,说明你没有得到一份好的工作。
    Ma Nan补充报道
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 天津建设用地 节约集约利用水平居全国前列 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

通州运河核心区将成世界级高端商务中心

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

北京下架92万条违规房源 市住建委要求15家主流网站自查整改

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

库存分化加剧 供应下滑致八月楼市难以高反弹

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

促人口要素在城乡间自由流动

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Have some respect for those who are promoting your work and hosting you to remove the gum before the interview begins.
  • 我们一定要让企业和群众更多感受到“放管服”改革成效,着力打通“最后一公里”,坚决除烦苛之弊、施公平之策、开便利之门。
  • 中山小榄LED总产值破百亿 首获“国字号”荣誉

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Perhaps just as important, stable or falling prices will boost the inflation-adjusted pay of U.S. workers and gives them more bang for their buck. "It's an unambiguous positive for household demand," said Neil Dutta, head of economics at Renaissance Macro Research. "People will have more money to spend."
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Lucy Kay 成为亚军,而正太组合 Bars and Melody 位列第三。
    Arlie Russell Hochschild, the author of “Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right,” describes a feeling of lost opportunity as the “deep story” of the rural Louisiana communities she spent four years studying.
    In terms of salary three years after graduation, Germany leads the way for masters in management programmes, with three schools in the top four. Graduates of WHU Beisheim have the distinction of earning the highest salary, at $98,123 on average.
  • 卓越雇主排名:11

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 紧随Fitbit和谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)之后,许多公司开始蜂拥进入这一市场,带来了许多装有感应器的臂章、服饰以及眼镜。这个领域现在炙手可热,但最早使用这些设备的人们似乎都在等待那个时刻,让他们不再显得特立独行。(你知道的,谷歌眼镜的粉丝们现在有了个专门的贬义称呼“Glasshole”。)
  • 17家房企前8月销售额18998亿元 同比增3成
  • This year so far, Stephen Chow’s The Mermaid has made $526 million since its release in early February during Lunar New Year.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 高库存拖累楼市整体回暖 专家称开发商盼“解套”
  • Household substance abuse
  • 小五金大文章 首批中国家居五金团体标准全国强势推广!
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

高校毕业生薪酬期待上涨 业内:房租上涨所致

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 房地产调控总基调没有变
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 上海市消保委:长租公寓兴起 投诉量递增
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

“食品批发价格显示,上月,猪肉、蔬菜和水果的价格上涨都有所放缓,”凯投宏观(Capital Economics)在CPI数据公布前表示。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

轮滑看起来有点像常规的单排轮滑鞋,不过轮滑的轮非常大,尺寸大小跟自行车车轮差不多,看起来像是溜冰鞋,滑雪板和自行车的合体。最近一家名字叫作战车溜冰的公司声称,他们已经有了一些独特的想法——战车轮滑。根据该公司所说,这种轮滑是"革命性的新轮滑产品"。这是一场改革吗?也许是吧,他们至少在改进设计。这是发明吗?不是的。第一双轮滑早在142年前就已存在 。
trans转移+port拿,运→移动着拿→运输
vi. & vt
美国总统vs韩美自由贸易协定
Neumann, Silbermann and Sharp are three of 66 billionaires under 40 years old, a record for the Forbes list.
周三,北京市市委宣布,计划将绝大部分的北京市政府部门在2017年迁至通州区。
她说,在人民币升值的同时,与中国在旅游业方面构成竞争关系的国家(如日本)的货币贬值,这意味着到其他一些亚洲国家旅游的费用更加便宜,而来中国旅游更贵了。
“欧洲工商管理学院极大地充实了我们的跨文化体验,”一位来自瑞士的校友在接受调查时表示,“在这里学习全球文化好于其他任何地方。”
1. 詹妮弗?劳伦斯
2013 Rank: 12

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

民宿期待一场品质革命

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 补救办法:当我们在做出重大决定时,例如接受(或拒绝)工作邀请时,我们往往会受到信息性偏见的影响。如果我们认为自己做出了正确的选择,就首先会想到那些支持这种想法的信息。但如果我们担心自己犯了错误,我们的潜意识就会增强这种直觉。在做出工作的决定时,如果你习惯性地怀疑自己的能力,这个问题不在于你以前所做的职业选择是否正确,而在于你需要建立自信,相信自己有能力选择让自己满意的职业,并对结果有一定的把握。若要解决这个问题,需要回忆你在做出这个选择时所处的环境和当时你所优先考虑的因素,然后看看现在所处的环境和优先考虑的因素是否发生了变化。此外还要与职业顾问合作,理清工作决策,帮助你增强进入新领域的信心、承担风险和谈判的能力。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 2、冷静自若。007总是很平静。(对男女来说都有用)。即便是在死到临头的时候,也很冷静。这就是性感啊。邦德从不慌张失措。你没见过邦德腿发软手发抖吧。他讲话时语速慢而谨慎,从不乱阵脚。这些都是极富魅力的品质,遭遇劲敌面不改色-这很容易让女人心动不已。他从不向女人表白个不停,就让她们猜不透,搞不懂,这样更加有吸引力。邦德不常微笑也为他的性感加分,因为有幸福感的男人吸引不了女人。007的肢体语言很强势,阳刚血性,从不畏惧;007从不喋喋不休,让他更加优雅;007从不懒散,挺拔的体姿不仅增加自信心,还有力量感,看起来更强壮(身着燕尾服与恶棍搏斗看起来更有档次)。
  • 两家中介被暂停朝阳网签资格
  • Dawn Hudson, Academy CEO:
  • 40城土地量增价跌溢价走低 一二线地价降温三线创新高
  • With best wishes for a happy New Year!

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 中国家居智能硬件 市场规模来将达460亿
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • If Lloyd Grossman were to go through the keyholes of Oscar winners’ houses, he would find their golden statues in various spots: from prime real estate such as the mantelpiece to the depths of cupboards collecting dust.
  • Topped with golden leaves and flavored with champagne, the confection was sold for $100 a pop.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

三大盟友集体叛逃 京东家居市场策略错在哪?

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